Dynamic microphones use a voice coil to convert sound into voltage. Due to their low sensitivity, dynamic microphones are often used for loud sources. Common use cases for dynamic microphones: recording high sound pressure levels, positioning the microphone at close range; due to the weaker signal-to-noise performance, it is not important here.
A condenser microphone (usually) uses a diaphragm that is excited by the sound and vibrates accordingly. This sound is then converted into an electrical signal. A condenser microphone requires a power supply, the so-called 48V phantom power. This is available on most mixers or good interfaces to choose from. Condenser microphones are better suited for sources that are to be reproduced in great detail or that are further away due to their high sensitivity. Recordings made with a condenser microphone sound clearer compared to dynamic microphone recordings.
Advantages: condenser microphone
1. Condenser microphones offer a higher level of detail (especially in the higher frequencies).
2. The lightweight diaphragm of the condenser microphone has better transient response.
3. The condenser microphone's higher signal-to-noise ratio provides very clean and clear recordings.
Microphone recordings of voice for podcasts and more
Condenser and dynamic microphone
As with recording vocals, podcasts and voice-over recordings sound particularly impressive when you use a condenser microphone. The condenser microphone reproduces many details of your voice. Still, many broadcast studios, like radio stations, use dynamic microphones for their live sessions.
The main difference between the two microphones is the difference in sensitivity and level of detail in the high frequencies.
Microphone recordings for acoustic guitars
> A condenser microphone picks up all the details of your instrument and leads to a natural sound and more authentic sound image.
> A dynamic microphone delivers less treble and affects the natural sound of the acoustic guitar (character).
Microphone for drum recordings
Advantage Dynamic Microphone
1. A dynamic microphone can easily handle high sound pressure levels.
2. Dynamic microphones have low sensitivity, and even the high SPLs result in signals that can be easily processed by the next device in your recording chain without distortion.
Microphone for electric guitar recordings
Due to their transducer principle with a voice coil, dynamic microphones are fundamentally indifferent to high sound pressure levels. Due to the low sensitivity you have no problems with the distortion of the input of the preamp.